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Sherah:Hello and welcome back to Hebrewpod101.com. This is Lower Intermediate, Season 1, Lesson 20 - Will That Israeli Soccer Team Let You Play With a Broken Arm? I’m your host, Sherah!
Amir:And I’m Amir.
Sherah:In this lesson, you'll learn three ways to say “because” in Hebrew.
Amir:The conversation takes place at Dan and Li’el’s school.
Sherah:It’s between Dan and Li’el.
Amir:The speakers are family, and they’ll be using informal Hebrew.
Sherah:So, going to school in Israel, you should be an expert on that, Amir.
Amir:I guess so. Well, like North American schools, Israeli schools are divided into three levels.
Sherah:Right, primary school is from first to sixth grade, middle school is from seventh to ninth, and secondary school or high school is from tenth to twelfth.
Amir:Something that is different though is that we have four different types of schools. We have state schools, which are secular schools and conducted in Hebrew.
Sherah:Right and then there are the state-religious schools. In these schools they teach about Judaism, and they emphasize tradition and religious observance.
Amir:You don’t have to be religious to go to a state-religious school, but you do if you go to the next type of school which is the Orthodox religious schools or the Haredi schools.
Sherah:The fourth type of school are the Arab schools. These schools are conducted in Arabic and serve the Arab-Israeli, Druze, and Beduin populations.
Amir:Another difference with Israeli schools is that we only study until one in the afternoon each day.
Sherah:Well, that and you study from Sunday to Friday instead of only five days a week.
Amir:I think the biggest difference is that school is not a social hub for us. We don’t have sports teams connected with the schools or anything like that.
Sherah:You make friends at school, but your social life is not centered on the school like it is in North America. You also don’t have school dances like we do.
Amir:A few schools do, but it’s not a very popular thing in Israel.
Sherah:Let’s take a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word we want to talk about is במקום.
Amir:במקום means “instead of” or “in lieu of”.
Sherah:When you literally break it down, it means “in the place of”.
Amir:This word can take pronoun suffixes like other conjunctions.
Sherah:It can also just be followed by a noun. Here are some examples of במקום with a pronoun suffix. במקומי means “instead of me”.
Amir:במקומה means "instead of her." Here is במקום followed by a noun במקום גשם, meaning “instead of rain”.
Sherah:In a sentence, this would be אני רוצה שמש במקום גשם. "I want sun instead of rain."
Amir:Who doesn’t, right? The next word we want to talk about is להצליח or “to succeed”.
Sherah:It can also mean “to make it” or “to prosper”.
Amir:It can be paired with a verb in the infinitive like להצליח להתמודד or “to succeed coping”.
Sherah:When you want it to carry the meaning of “prospering” or “making it” you can simply say הוא מצליח or “he’s making it”.
Amir:The last word we want to talk about is לפגוע.
Sherah:This is a pa’al verb that means “to hurt”, “to injure,” or “to insult”. This verb can be used for both physical injuries and emotional injuries.
Amir:For example, a physical injury would be פגעתי ברגל or “I injured my foot”.
Sherah:An example of a sentence that talks about emotional injury is הוא פגע בי or “He hurt me”.
Amir:There are a few expressions that use this word, the first is פגע וברח, and this is just like in English, a “hit and run”.
Sherah:Another expression is לפגוע בכבודו meaning “to slight” or “offend” someone. Okay, now onto the grammar.
Sherah:In this lesson, you’ll learn how to say “because” three different ways in Hebrew.
Amir:The most basic way to say because in Hebrew is כי.
Sherah:Right, the word כי separates two clauses, the first making a statement and the second stating the reason.
Amir:Each of the clauses could stand on their own.
Sherah:With כי the order of the sentence matters. כי separates the two clauses and must be in the middle. You cannot open a sentence with כי in Hebrew.
Amir:In the sample sentence Dan says to Ma’ayan את לא תצליחי or “You won’t succeed”.
Sherah:...and then he says כי for “because,” and then the explanation of why כי השחקנים הטובים כולם כבר פה or “because the good players are already here”.
Amir:Another way to say “because” is with בגלל.
Sherah:Yes, it’s used in a different way though. We use בגלל when we want to say “because of something” and it's followed by a noun or noun phrase and not a full clause.
Amir:We see this in the sample sentence הרופא אמר לך שאתה לא יכול לשחק כדורגל, בגלל היד השבורה.
Sherah:Right, Li’el says that the doctor told Dan he couldn’t play soccer because of his broken arm. The phrase that uses בגלל is בגלל היד השבורה or “because of your broken arm”.
Amir:בגלל can be used at the beginning of the sentence or at the end, but it must be followed by a noun or a noun phrase, not a full sentence or clause.
Sherah:This is important because most Israelis use it wrongly and say בגלל ש followed by a full clause.
Amir:Right, if you said בגלל שהיד שלך שבורה, it would be wrong, but you'll hear Israeli say this all the time.
Sherah:Instead of that, you should say מכוון ש, and this is another way we can say “because” in Hebrew.
Amir:מכוון ש can mean “because” or “since”. You'll find it used both in written and spoken Hebrew.
Sherah:מכוון ש precedes the clause that states the reason for the main statement.
Amir:In the dialogue, Dan used this phrase when he said, אני חייב לשחק מכוון שאין להם מספיק שחקנים
Sherah:Unlike כי, this can be used in the beginning of a sentence or in the middle between the two clauses.
Amir:Right, Dan could've said מכוון שאין להם מספיק שחקנים, אני חייב לשחק
Sherah:So, let’s look at some example sentences using using all three of these words for "because." Amir will give the Hebrew, and I'll give the English.
Amir:First is ki. הוא לא בא לבית הספר כי הוא חולה
Sherah:"He’s not coming to school because he’s sick." Next is בגלל
Amir:הוא לא בא לבית הספר בגלל המחלה..
Sherah:"He's not coming to school because of the sickness." Notice here that בגלל is followed by a noun “the sickness”.
Amir:הוא לא בא לבית הספר מכוון שהוא חולה
Sherah:"He's not coming to school because he is sick." And now with מכוון ש leading the sentence.
Amir:מכוון שהוא חולה, הוא לא בא לבית הספר
Sherah:"Since he’s sick, he's not coming to school."


Sherah:Ok, that’s all for this lesson. Come see us at HebrewPod101.com and talk to us about what you’ve learned here.
Amir:Thanks for being with us, everyone,