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Sherah:Hello and welcome back to Hebrewpod101.com. This is Lower Intermediate, Season 1, Lesson 16 - A Visit To An Israeli Hospital. I’m your host, Sherah!
Amir:And I’m Amir.
Sherah:In this lesson, you'll learn about the passive verb group Pu’al.
Amir:The conversation takes place at the hospital.
Sherah:It’s between Ma’ayan and a doctor.
Amir:The speakers are strangers, and they’ll be using informal Hebrew.
Sherah:Nobody wants to end up in the hospital, but if you do, Israel is not a bad place to be.
Amir:That’s true, we're known for our excellent hospitals.:
Sherah:We get a lot of foreigners coming to Israel because of this.:
Amir:Yes. We get foreigners who come because they want quality care that's affordable.
Sherah:We also get people who come from Syria for treatment because they don’t have a place to go in Syria anymore.:
Amir:Israel also offers medical treatment to some Palestinians because they can’t get some medical treatments in the Territories. :
Sherah:Right, one of programs we have is for heart surgeries for children who are in need of heart surgery and can’t get it there.
Amir:We have both public and private hospitals in Israel. :
Sherah:Most of the private hospitals are owned by one of the main health funds, Klalit.:
Amir:Others are owned by non-profits and charitable organizations.
Sherah:There are also government-owned hospitals and those are run by the Ministry of Health. Okay, now let’s move on to the vocab.
Sherah:Let’s take a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word we want to talk about is שבור.
Amir:This word means “broken,” and it can sometimes even mean “heartbroken."
Sherah:Right, you can say שבור for “heartbroken,” but you can also add the word for “heart”, or לב, after it and say שבור לב.
Amir:שבור can refer to both people and objects. You can say עצם שבורה, and that is a "broken bone".:
Sherah:Or you can say כוס שבורה, which is a “broken glass”.
Amir:If you want to use it to say that someone is a "broken person," you can say that he is a בן אדם שבור.
Sherah:The next word we want to talk about is נפילה, and this means “fall”.
Amir:Right, it can also mean “collapse” or “downfall”.
Sherah:It shares a root with the verb ליפול, meaning “to fall”.
Amir:Some situations that you'd use it in, is when a building falls or even a nation collapses.:
Sherah:Speaking of which, they use this word a lot when they talk about the collapse of two very big nations, the Soviet Union and Rome.:
Amir:Yes, the "collapse of the Soviet Union" is נפילת ברית המועצות.
Sherah:The "fall of Rome" is נפילת רומא.
Amir:Another phrase that uses this word is מחלת הנפילה, which is “epilepsy” in English. :
Sherah:The literal translation would be “falling sickness”.
Amir:The last expression we want to talk about is החלמה מהירה. This is a blessing that you use when someone is sick.
Sherah:Right, it means “speedy recovery”.
Amir:The first word החלמה means "recovery."
Sherah:And the second word מהירה means “fast”. Okay, now onto the grammar.
Sherah:In this lesson you’ll learn about the passive verb group Pu’al.
Amir:In Hebrew, each active group of verbs has a special relationship with one passive group of verbs.
Sherah:Right, the active group Pi’el has a special relationship with the passive verb group Pu’al.
Amir:This means that if a verb in the verb group Pi’el has a passive form, it will be found in the verb group Pu’al.
Sherah:Pu’al verbs only have a past, present, and future tense. They don’t have an imperative tense or an infinitive.
Amir:Just like the Pi’el, in Pu’al there is a stress on the second letter of the root.
Sherah:This means that when you have letters that have two sounds, only one of those sounds will be used.
Amir:The letters ב, כ and פ will only use the sounds “b”, “k,” and “p” when they're the middle letter of the root. :
Sherah:Pu’al verbs also have a ‘מ preceding the root in the present tense. The difference between Pi’el and Pu’al in the present tense is the ‘ו (vav) which makes a “u” sound between the first and second root letters.
Amir:This vav making the “u” vowel sound is seen in all tenses.:
Sherah:To look at Pu’al in the present tense, let’s take a look at our sample sentence. :
Amir:In the dialogue, the doctor says הוא מטופל על ידי האחות כרגע
Sherah:The doctor says that Dan is being treated by the nurse right now.
Amir:The verb used in this sentence is מטופל which can mean “being treated” or “being taken care of”.
Sherah:This is the masculine singular form of the verb in the present tense.
Amir:The feminine singular is מטופלת.
Sherah:The masculine plural is מטופלים, and the feminine plural is מטופלות.:
Amir:Another thing you'll notice in the sentence from the dialogue is the use of על ידי after the verb.
Sherah:על ידי means “by,” and it’s only used in the passive tense to indicate who did the action.
Amir:I think it would be a good idea to see this sentence go from active to passive to see how the different parts of the sentence change place, and how the verb changes.
Sherah:Okay, let’s start with the active.
Amir:The active of this sentence would be האחות מטופלת בו כרגעה
Sherah:"The nurse is treating him right now." It starts with the one doing the action, "the nurse" or האחות.
Amir:After the subject, we have the verb מטפלת. It agrees with the subject in the feminine singular.
Sherah:Then we have בו. In English, we would simply say “him” without any prepositions. In Hebrew, we use the preposition -ב meaning “on” or “in” after the verb לטפל.
Amir:Right, so we have בו meaning “on him”.
Sherah:The rest of the sentence is כרגע, meaning “right now”. Let’s take a look at the passive again.
Amir:The passive is הוא מטופל על ידי האחות כרגע.
Sherah:Dan is now the subject, so it starts out with הוא.:
Amir:הוא is followed by מטופל, which is the passive form of לטפל, and it's in the masculine singular because it agrees with the new subject.
Sherah:After the verb, we have the preposition we use in the passive, על ידי and then what was our subject in the active sentence, האחות or “the nurse”.:
Amir:Notice that the tense always stays the same when you move from active to passive.
Sherah:Yes, let’s look at sample sentences in the past and the future as they move from active to passive. Amir will give the Hebrew and I will give the English. We’ll start with the past tense.
Amir:Active, אבא שלי תיקן את האופניים שלי
Sherah:"My dad fixed my bike. "
Amir:...and now the passive. האופניים שלי תוקנו על ידי אבא שלי.
Sherah:"My bike was fixed by my dad." Let’s see some sentences in the future.
Amir:The active is... דן יסדר את החדר שלו.
Sherah:"Dan will straighten his room."
Amir:And the passive... החדר של דן יסודר על ידיו.
Sherah:"Dan’s room will be straightened by him."
Amir:As you can see in the last sentence, the preposition על ידי can take pronoun suffixes just like other prepositions.
Sherah:Right, in this lesson we also saw both על ידך and על ידי.


Sherah:Ok, that’s all for this lesson. Come see us at HebrewPod101.com, and talk to us about what you’ve learned here.
Amir:Thanks for being with us, everyone,