Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Sherah: Hi everyone, and welcome back to HebrewPod101.com. This is Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 6 - Having a Bad Day at Work in Israel. Sherah here.
Amir: שלום I'm Amir.
Sherah: In this lesson, you’ll learn about location of adjectives in a sentence. The conversation takes place at at a cafe.
Amir: It's between Ella and Daniel.
Sherah: The speakers are friends, so they will use informal Hebrew. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

אלה: היה לי יום נורא!
דניאל: אני רואה! מה קרה?
אלה: הייתה לי לקוחה איומה במשתלה היום. היא הייתה ממש קשוחה ומגעילה.
דניאל: למה, מה היא עשתה לך?
אלה: היא מיהרה ורצתה שאני אעזור לה, אבל הייתי באמצע משהו אחר ולא יכולתי לעזור.
דניאל: איפה הבוס שלך היה?
אלה: יוני הלך להביא אוכל, והאישה העקשנית הזאת עמדה לידי ועשתה לי פרצופים עד שסיימתי.
דניאל: את תמימה מדי, את צריכה להיות קשוחה עם אנשים.
אלה: הייתי קשוחה, אמרתי לה שזה לא יפה.
אלה: היא ענתה לי שאין לה זמן לשטויות, ואז יוני הגיע.
דניאל: סיפרת לו איך היא התנהגה?
אלה: כן, הוא כבר מכיר אותה. הוא אמר לי לא לשים לב להצגות שלה.
Sherah: Listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Ella: I had a horrible day!
Daniel: I see! What happened?
Ella: I had a terrible customer at the nursery today. She was really tough and nasty.
Daniel: Why, what did she do to you?
Ella: She was in a hurry and wanted me to help her, but I was in the middle of something and I couldn't help.
Daniel: Where was your boss?
Ella: Yoni went to bring food, and that stubborn woman stood next to me and made faces at me until I finished.
Daniel: You're too naive, you need to be tough with people.
Ella: I was tough, I told her it wasn't nice.
Ella: She said she didn't have time for nonsense, and then Yoni arrived.
Daniel: Did you tell him how she behaved?
Ella: Yes, he knows her already. He said not to take notice of her displays.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Sherah: Amir, it is well known that Israelis love to donate and to volunteer.
Amir: Right. There are 30,000 nonprofit organizations in Israel, in fields such as social welfare, animals, youth, and many more.
Sherah: I think this mentality is reinforced by education, right?
Amir: I agree. There is a special volunteering program operating in every high school in Israel, called the “personal commitment project”. Every high school student must complete this program by volunteering for 60 hours in a community activity of their choice.
Sherah: Students can volunteer in nature-preserving organizations, homeless shelters, veterinary clinics, hospitals, with the elderly, and so on.
Amir: This program was initiated by the department of education, in order to make the Israeli youth more involved in their community and more empathetic to others around them.
Sherah: Okay, now onto the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Sherah: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is..
Amir: נורא [natural native speed]
Sherah: horrible
Amir: נורא [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: נורא [natural native speed]
Sherah: Next we have..
Amir: הצגה [natural native speed]
Sherah: display
Amir: הצגה [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: הצגה [natural native speed]
Sherah: Next we have..
Amir: קשוח [natural native speed]
Sherah: tough
Amir: קשוח[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: קשוח [natural native speed]
Sherah: Next we have..
Amir: למהר [natural native speed]
Sherah: to hurry
Amir: למהר[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: למהר [natural native speed]
Sherah: Next we have..
Amir: אמצע [natural native speed]
Sherah: middle
Amir: אמצע[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: אמצע [natural native speed]
Sherah: Next we have..
Amir: בוס [natural native speed]
Sherah: boss
Amir: בוס[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: בוס [natural native speed]
Sherah: Next we have..
Amir: עקשן [natural native speed]
Sherah: stubborn
Amir: עקשן[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: עקשן [natural native speed]
Sherah: Next we have..
Amir: פרצוף [natural native speed]
Sherah: face
Amir: פרצוף[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: פרצוף [natural native speed]
Sherah: Next we have..
Amir: תמים [natural native speed]
Sherah: naive
Amir: תמים[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: תמים [natural native speed]
Sherah: And last..
Amir: התנהגות [natural native speed]
Sherah: behavior
Amir: התנהגות[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: התנהגות [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Sherah: Let's have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word is..
Amir: הצגה
Sherah: which means “display”, “performance,” or “show”.
Amir: הצגה is a feminine noun and could be paired with the word תיאטרון (te'atron), “theater”, to create the construct הצגת תיאטרון (hatzagat te'atron), “Theater show”.
Sherah: However, in everyday Hebrew it usually stands by itself. When it is used to refer to a show, it will always be a theater show.
Amir: It won't be used to describe a comedy show, a dance show, and so on.
Sherah: We also use this expression to imply that a person's behavior isn't authentic, that they're just pretending - putting on a show.
Amir: You can often hear it being said about spoiled children.
Sherah: Can you give us an example using this word?
Amir: Sure. For example, you can say.. תפסיק לעשות הצגות ובוא לעבודה.
Sherah: ..which means “Stop putting on a show and come to work.” Okay, what's the next word?
Amir: פרצוף
Sherah: which means “face”. It is a colloquial word.
Amir: The proper word is פנים (panim).
Sherah: Amir, what is the difference between these two words?
Amir: The difference between the two is that פנים (panim) has a more positive notion, and thus is considered more polite. Moreover, the word פרצוף (partzuf) could also mean “facial expression” .
Sherah: Can you give us some examples?
Amir: For example, you can say “to make a sad face”, which would be לעשות פרצוף עצוב (la'asot partzuf atzuv), or “to make faces at someone” - ...לעשות פרצופים ל (la'asot partzufim le...).
Sherah: So, it’s a way to describe a certain passive-aggressive behaviour – letting someone know of your disapproval through facial expressions.
Amir: We use the expression לעשות פרצוף (la'asot partzuf) in negative context, since it's not a nice thing to do.
Sherah: Listeners, you should note that the word פרצוף (partzuf) is very informal, and is usually used in negative contexts.
Amir: In formal situations, or when giving a compliment, you should use the word פנים (panim). Amir, can you give us an example using our word?
Amir: Sure. הוא הסכים לתת לי ללכת, אבל עשה פרצופים.
Sherah: .. which means “He agreed to let me go, but he made faces.” Okay, what's the last word?
Amir: התנהגות
Sherah: which means “behavior” and like the equivalent English noun, it could also be turned into a verb. For example, להתנהג (le'hitnaheg), “to behave” or “to act”.
Amir: The root letters are Nun Heh Gimel: נ.ה.ג, and the verb stem is Hitpa'el.
Sherah: This verb is often said to children as a demand. For example...
Amir: תתנהג יפה (titnaheg ya'fe)
Sherah: “behave nicely”
Amir: תתנהג (titnaheg) is the singular, masculine, future tense of the verb להתנהג (le'hitnaheg)
Sherah: The future form of verbs is often used as an imperative. Amir, can you give us an example using this word?
Amir: Sure. For example, you can say.. היא התחילה להתנהג מוזר בשבוע האחרון.
Sherah: .. which means “She started to act strange in the last week.” Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Sherah: In this lesson, you’ll learn about location of adjectives in a sentence. Hebrew adjectives are used in a similar way to English adjectives, with two main differences. The first big difference is that Hebrew adjectives come after the noun.
Amir: Right. When describing a noun, the described noun will come before its description. For example, let’s look at this sentence from the dialog. היה לי יום נורא!
Sherah: This means “I had a horrible day”
Amir: היה לי (haya li) means “I had”, יום (yom) means “day” and נורא (nora) means “horrible”.
Sherah: As you can see, the described noun - “day” - appears before the describing adjective, “horrible”. A more literal translation of this sentence would be “I had a day horrible”.
Amir: In today’s Hebrew, this is the structure and it never changes.
Sherah: Let’s look at another example.
Amir: הילדה הזאת חכמה.
Sherah: “This girl is smart.”
Amir: הילדה (ha-yalda) means “the girl”, הזאת (ha-zot) means “this” or “that”, and חכמה (ħa’khama) means “smart”.
Sherah: As you can see, the described noun - “this girl” - appears before the describing adjective, “smart”. Let’s do one last example.
Amir: הוא נמוך.
Sherah: “He is short.”
Amir: הוא (hu) means “He”, and נמוך (namukh) means “short”.
Sherah: Again, the described noun - “he” - appears before the describing adjective, “short”. Another difference is that Hebrew adverbs follow adjectives and verbs.
Amir: Proper Hebrew sentences places the adverb after the adjective or the verb it refers to and not before.
Sherah: Look at this sentence from the dialog.
Amir: את תמימה מדי.
Sherah: This means “You're too naive.”
Amir: The adverb מדי (midai), “too”, precedes the adjective תמימה (tmima), “naive”.
Sherah: Let’s look at some more examples.
Amir: היא רצה מהר.
Sherah: “She runs fast.”
Amir: The adverb מהר (ma’her), “fast” (or “quickly”), precedes the verb רצה (ratza), “runs”. Another example is..הוא משעמם מאוד.
Sherah: “He is very boring.”
Amir: The adverb מאוד (me’od), “very”, precedes the adjective משעמם (me’sha’amem), “boring”.
Sherah: In today’s Hebrew, this rule is often broken - but only with certain adverbs. If you’re worried you’ll get confused - just stick to the proper rule. It will always fit. Listeners, you can find more grammar rules and explanations in the lesson notes, so please be sure to check them out.

Outro

Sherah: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Amir: להתראות

33 Comments

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HebrewPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
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Let us know if you have any questions.

HebrewPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 02:17 AM
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Hi Yitzchak,


Thanks for posting your question!


Well, the answer is yes and no...


The adjective "קשוח" is in principle meant to describe people but in modern Hebrew slang (probably due to influences of English) it is used to describe situations as well (as in: "that was tough!") - a test is a good example ("!המבחן היה קשוח").


One note about your question formulation itself: the correct way to write that would be:


"האם *ניתן / מותר / אפשר* להשתמש *במילה* 'קשוח' כדי לתאר דברים חוץ מאנשים, כמו מבחן?"


Happy to help!


Yours,

Roi

Team HebrewPod101.com

Yitzchak
Monday at 01:14 AM
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האם יכולים להשתמש ב'קשוח' כדי לתאר דברים חוץ מאנשים, כמו מבחן?


Can you use 'קשוח' to describe things other than people, such as a test?

HebrewPod101.com
Sunday at 10:10 PM
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Hi Ruti Eastman,


Thank you very much for commenting and for sharing this story! 😄😄


We appreciate the great feedback and happy to hear that your experience ended well ❤️️❤️️😇


Enjoy learning Hebrew and always feel free to comment and post your thoughts and questions...!


Yours,

Roi

Team HebrewPod101.com


Ruti Eastman
Monday at 09:19 PM
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I really appreciate the structure of these lessons, especially the cultural commentary about how language is properly used, and with whom. For example, you teach the proper usage of the pejorative term "פרצוף" in a way that explains something I experienced years ago. During the time my eldest son was serving in the IDF, he came home with a "sort of" funny story about IDF buddies calling each other this term. It was clear that it was a big joke, and all the boys laughed. But when my son told me the word meant "face," I was completely confused. Now, thanks to your explanation, I get it, and I understand why it was funny to all the soldiers. P.S. They still like each other. 😉 😄

HebrewPod101.com
Tuesday at 01:06 AM
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Hi hilda,


Thanks for commenting on this and for the positive feedback!

I will forward this to the right address of course 👍


Yours,

Roi

Team HebrewPod101.com


hilda
Sunday at 10:27 PM
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Please note: adverbs don't PRECEDE VERBS EITHER IN ENGLISH OR I HEBREW. THEY FOLLOW. e.g. hu ratz maher. The adverb maher follows the verb. (he runs quickly) - adverb quickly follows the verb.

thanks for the lesson!!!!

HebrewPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 04:49 AM
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Hi Jeannet,


Thanks for enlighting us about these issues.


I am forwarding it on.

Thanks,

Roi

Team HebrewPod101.com

Jeannet Benschop
Monday at 03:31 AM
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Shalom! I did not read all the comments, so may be someone else has already commented on this:

Lesson notes:

at tmima midai.

"You're too naive."

The adverb מדי (midai), "too (much)," precedes the adjective תמימה (tmima), "naive."

--> 'precedes' should be 'follows'


היא רצה מהר.

hi ratza ma'her.

"She runs fast."

The adverb מהר (ma'her), "fast" (or "quickly"), precedes the verb רצה (ratza), "runs."

--> 'precedes' should be 'follows'


הוא משעמם מאוד.

hu me'sha'amem me'od.

"He is very boring."

The adverb מאוד (me'od), "very," precedes the adjective משעמם (me'sha'amem), "boring."

--> 'precedes' should be 'follows'

Hebrewpod101.com Verified
Monday at 10:20 PM
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Hi Jeannet,


Just saw you saw it yourself ? Good work :)


Roi

Team Hebrewpod101.com

Hebrewpod101.com Verified
Monday at 10:19 PM
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Hi Jeannet ,


No, this time you're wrong - 'Kafuf' is correct. remember that "ף" is the ending form of "פ", while "ך" is for "כ".


Yours,

Roi

Team Hebrewpod101.com