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Lesson Transcript

Sherah: Hi everyone, and welcome back to HebrewPod101.com. This is Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 10 - The Dirtiest Clean Bathroom in Israel. Sherah here.
Amir: שלום I'm Amir.
Sherah: In this lesson, you’ll learn about types of adverbs in Hebrew. The conversation takes place at a restaurant.
Amir: It's between Mrs. Alon and waiter.
Sherah: The speakers are strangers, so they will use informal Hebrew. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

גברת אלון: עכשיו חזרתי מהשירותים ואני רוצה להגיד לך שמישהו צריך לנקות שם ביסודיות.
מלצר: באמת? המנקה היה פה אתמול.
גברת אלון: בכל הרצינות, אני חושבת שאי אפשר לקרוא לזה נקיון.
מלצר: אני אבדוק את זה. תודה שהודעת לי.
גברת אלון: ועוד משהו, אם אתה כבר פה. אני חושבת שהצלחות האלה ממש לא ברמה של המסעדה.
מלצר: כן? אני לא אחראי על הדברים האלה, אבל אני אמסור את מה שאמרת לאחראי.
גברת אלון: תודה, חמוד.
מלצר: את רוצה להסביר לי למה הצלחות לא טובות? נשמע שאת מבינה בדברים האלה.
גברת אלון: כן, הבעיה היא שרואים שהן משומשות. זאת אומרת שהציפוי לא קשה מספיק. אני מצטערת, אבל זו המציאות.
מלצר: טוב לדעת, אני אמסור לאישה שמזמינה אותן.
גברת אלון: אבל לא באלימות... בעדינות.
מלצר: כמובן. (צוחק)
Sherah: Listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Mrs. Alon: I just returned from the bathroom and I want to tell you that someone needs to thoroughly clean there.
Waiter: Really? The cleaner was here yesterday.
Mrs. Alon: In all earnestness, I think it's impossible to call that cleaning.
Waiter: I'll check it out. Thanks for notifying me.
Mrs. Alon: And another thing, while you're here. I think the plates are not nice enough for this restaurant.
Waiter: Yes? I'm not responsible for these things, but I can pass on your concerns to whoever is responsible.
Mrs. Alon: Thanks, sweetheart.
Waiter: Do you want to explain to me why the plates are not good? It sounds like you understand such things.
Mrs. Alon: Yes, the problem is that you see that they have been used. This means that the covering is not hard enough. I'm sorry, but that is the reality of it.
Waiter: Good to know, I'll tell the woman who orders them.
Mrs. Alon: Not violently though... gently.
Waiter: Of course. (laughs)
Sherah: Israel doesn't have natural resources like oil or coal, so the Israeli industry concentrates mostly on developing and manufacturing products based on Israel's own scientific and technological innovation.
Amir: Most of Israel's industry is based on intensive research and hi-tech processes, and up until the 1970s, most resources were directed toward developing agriculture, food production, construction, and providing employment for many unskilled immigrants.
Sherah: The conditions of the area forced the young country to develop arms needed for its defense, and so new technologies were created. With time, Israel developed unique hi-tech industries that include medical devices, electronics, computer software and hardware, and telecommunications.
Amir: Today, the major industrial sectors in Israel include high-technology products, metal products, electronic and biomedical equipment, agricultural products, and pharmaceuticals.
Sherah: Another important industry in Israel is the diamond industry. In fact, it is one of the world's centers of this field. Okay, now onto the vocab.
Sherah: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is..
Amir: יסודיות [natural native speed]
Sherah: thoroughness
Amir: יסודיות[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: יסודיות [natural native speed]
Sherah: Next we have..
Amir: מנקה [natural native speed]
Sherah: cleaner
Amir: מנקה[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: מנקה [natural native speed]
Sherah: Next we have..
Amir: רצינות [natural native speed]
Sherah: earnestness
Amir: רצינות[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: רצינות [natural native speed]
Sherah: Next we have..
Amir: נקיון [natural native speed]
Sherah: cleanliness
Amir: נקיון[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: נקיון [natural native speed]
Sherah: Next we have..
Amir: להודיע [natural native speed]
Sherah: to notify
Amir: להודיע[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: להודיע [natural native speed]
Sherah: Next we have..
Amir: מציאות [natural native speed]
Sherah: reality
Amir: מציאות[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: מציאות [natural native speed]
Sherah: Next we have..
Amir: רמה [natural native speed]
Sherah: level
Amir: רמה[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: רמה [natural native speed]
Sherah: Next we have..
Amir: למסור [natural native speed]
Sherah: to pass on
Amir: למסור[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: למסור [natural native speed]
Sherah: Next we have..
Amir: ציפוי [natural native speed]
Sherah: coating
Amir: ציפוי[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: ציפוי [natural native speed]
Sherah: And last..
Amir: משומש [natural native speed]
Sherah: used
Amir: משומש[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: משומש [natural native speed]
Sherah: Let's have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word is..
Amir: להודיע
Sherah: which means “to notify”, “to inform” or “to announce”.
Amir: The root letters of this verb are Yod Dalet Ayin - י.ד.ע, the letters that compose the word “knowledge” - ידע (yeda).
Sherah: As you can understand by the root letters, this verb is used in the context of letting someone know something - passing on information. Amir, can you give us an example using this word?
Amir: Sure. For example, you can say.. הוא הודיע לבעל הבית שהוא עוזב את הדירה.
Sherah: ..which means “He notified the landlord he's leaving the apartment.” Okay, what's the next word?
Amir: רמה
Sherah: which means “level” or “standard”.
Amir: רמה is used in a few ways.
Sherah: First, it can mean “level”, as in “the level of alcohol in one's blood”. Secondly it means “quality”, as in “their service is very high-quality”.
Amir: רמה is also used in a few slang expressions. One of them is ברמות (be-ramot), meaning “very much”, “really,” or even “excessively”. For example... הוא עשיר ברמות (hu ashir be-ramot)
Sherah: which means “He is really really rich”. Another expression is על רמה (al rama), meaning “classy”, or “of a high standard” .
Amir: For example...מקום על רמה
Sherah: “a classy place”. Amir, can you give us an example using this word?
Amir: Sure. הסטודנטים החדשים מעלים את הרמה בפקולטה.
Sherah: .. which means “The new students are raising the level in the faculty.” Okay, what's the last word?
Amir: למסור
Sherah: which means “to pass on”.
Amir: The verb למסור (limsor) has a few similar meanings: it can mean “to give”, “to transfer” or “to deliver”, but it can also mean “to notify”, and it's even used in sports to say “to pass”, for example, a ball.
Sherah: In one of its meanings - “to give” - the verb למסור (limsor) is almost equivalent to the verb לתת (latet) - “to give”. However, the two cannot be used interchangeably.
Amir: Right. You cannot use למסור (limsor) when talking about a gift, a compliment, or a physical gesture. It is much more practical - it is a bit more like “to deliver”.
Sherah: You can use it in a sentence about giving someone a letter they got, or giving your clothes to dry-cleaning.
Amir: Another common use of this verb is to say “to pass on information”, to tell someone a piece of information you were asked to deliver; for example, when you're on your phone with your brother, and he asks you to tell your friend something.
Sherah: For example...תמסור לו שאני אבוא מחר (timsor lo she-ani avo maħar)
Amir: which means “tell him I'll come tomorrow”.
Sherah: Another example is...היא ביקשה ממני למסור לכם דרישת שלום.
Amir: “She asked me to give you her regards”
Sherah: Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Sherah: In this lesson, you’ll learn about types of adverbs in Hebrew.
Amir: The rules of Hebrew adverbs are pretty simple.
Sherah: They are used in a similar way to English adverbs, and there is no need to conjugate them. It means they remain the same regardless of the verb or adjective they refer to.
Amir: Right. They don’t need to agree with it in number, gender, or tense.
Sherah: Like in English, Hebrew adverbs can be divided into a few main categories: adverbs of time, place, manner, intensity, and frequency. Like in English, the easiest category to recognise is “Manner”, since it has a specific structure.
Amir: In English, it’s the suffix “ly” or “ley”. In Hebrew, it’s the conjugation of the prefix ב (be-), meaning “in”, and an abstract noun denoting quality or state, like “laziness”, “gentleness”, “peacefulness” and so on.
Sherah: The one important rule of this category is that unlike in English, these adverbs don’t come before the adjective, they appear after it.
Amir: In our dialog we have the phrase...מישהו צריך לנקות שם ביסודיות.
Sherah: which means “someone needs to thoroughly clean there.”
Amir: לנקות (le'nakot) means “to clean”, שם (sham) is “there” and ביסודיות (be-yesodiyut) is a combination of the prefix ב (be-), “in”, and יסודיות (yesodiyut), “thoroughness”.
Sherah: Together, it means “thoroughly” or “to clean there thoroughly”. Let's take another example.
Amir: אבל לא באלימות... בעדינות.
Sherah: “Not violently though... gently.” The literal translation of this sentence is: “but not in violence… in gentleness.” As we just learnt, this means: “Not violently… gently.”
Amir: As you can see, the Hebrew equivalent of the suffix “ness” is וּת (ut).
Sherah: However, not all abstract nouns denoting quality or state end with “ness”, like “understanding”, for example.
Amir: In Hebrew, many of these nouns end with the letter ה (Heh) and the sound “ah”, like our latest example - הבנה (havana), “understanding”. And some of these nouns have different endings.
Sherah: Using these rules, let’s make our own noun-based adverbs.
Amir: Ok! If קלילות (klilut) is “lightness”, then “lightly” would be “be-klilut”.
Sherah: Let’s take another word - חביבות (ħavivut), “pleasantness” or “kindness”. “Kindly” would be “be-ħavivut”.
Amir: And another example is “speedily”, “be-me’hirut”. It is derived from מהירות (me’hirut), meaning “speed” or “swiftness”.
Sherah: Listeners, there is a rule stating that if the first letter of the noun has no vowel, the “beh” sound becomes a “bee” sound: bee-klilut. However, in everyday speech, this rule is usually disregarded. As always, for more examples and explanations, please check the lesson notes.


Sherah: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Amir: להתראות