Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Notes

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Shira: Hello and welcome to Hebrewpod101.com’s Absolute Beginner Season 1, Lesson 22, What Would You Like from the Israeli Supermarket? I’m your host, Shira!
Amir: Shalom, I’m Amir.
Shira: In this lesson, you will learn how to talk about actions in the future in Hebrew.
Amir: The conversation takes place at the supermarket.
Shira: It’s between David, Peter and Sarah.
Amir: And it is informal.
Shira: Let’s listen to the conversation

Lesson conversation

(בסופר)
(בסופר)
Peter: דוויד, מה תשתה הערב? יין? בירה?
David: אשתה בירה.
Peter: אז אקנה בירה. שרה, את גם תשתי בירה?
Sarah: כן, קצת.
English Host: Let's listen to the conversation with English translation.
(בסופר)
Shira: (At the Supermarket)
Peter: דוויד, מה תשתה הערב? יין? בירה?
Shira: David, what will you drink this evening? Wine? Beer?
David: אשתה בירה.
Shira: I'll have beer.
Peter: אז אקנה בירה. שרה, את גם תשתי בירה?
Shira: I'll buy beer then. Sarah, will you drink beer too?
Sarah: כן, קצת.
Shira: Yes, a little.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Amir: Let’s talk about beer!
Shira: I knew you would be excited about that. We can talk about both beer and wine.
Amir: Okay, Wine has been made in Israel since biblical times.
Shira: It’s is still made there today, and there are over a hundred wineries in Israel, some of them large and some small.
Amir: Grapes for wine are grown all throughout Israel, even in the desert with the use of drip technology.
Shira: Not all of the wine grown in Israel is kosher, but most of the large wineries have kosher certificates.
Amir: Israel produces red wine, white wine and sparkling wine.
Shira: If you are traveling in Israel, you should definitely stop by some of the wineries for a wine tasting.
Amir: Okay, now can we talk about beer?
Shira: Okay, you guys have to understand that Amir loves beer, he loves to try new beers from all over the world.
Amir: Well, beer is produced on a much smaller scale than wine, but it is still good.
Shira: There are two major breweries in Israel and some smaller microbreweries here and there.
Amir: The two main brands of beer are Goldstar and Maccabee.
Shira: You are probably wondering about the drinking age in Israel. That would be 18.
Amir: That’s the official drinking age, but most people grow up drinking a little bit of wine with their families on Shabbat or holidays.
Shira: Most Israelis drink in moderation and only recently has excessive alcohol drinking become a national issue. Okay, now let’s go to the vocabulary for this lesson.
VOCAB LIST
Amir: לשתות/שתה [natural native speed]
Shira: To drink.
Amir: לשתות/שתה [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: לשתות/שתה [natural native speed]
Amir: הערב [natural native speed]
Shira: This evening.
Amir: הערב [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: הערב [natural native speed]
Amir: יין [natural native speed]
Shira: Wine.
Amir: יין [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: יין [natural native speed]
Amir: בירה [natural native speed]
Shira: Beer.
Amir: בירה [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: בירה [natural native speed]
Amir: קצת. [natural native speed]
Shira: A little.
Amir: קצת. [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: קצת. [natural native speed]
Amir: לקנות [natural native speed]
Shira: To buy.
Amir: לקנות [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: לקנות [natural native speed]
KEY VOCABULARY AND PHRASES
Shira: Let's take a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word is לשתות.
Amir: לשתות means “to drink”.
Shira: לשתות is part of the פעל verb group, but it’s not like the previous פעל verbs we have seen because it has a ה' in the root, which disappears and changes to other letters throughout the conjugations. We’ll learn more about it in the grammar section.
Amir: This word can also be used to refer to drinking alcohol, as it is in English. You don’t have to specify that you are drinking alcohol.
Shira: Right, and the word שתיה which means “drinks” can mean both alcoholic drinks or drinks such as soda and juice. It’s also often used to refer to alcoholic drinks without specifying that they are alcoholic, just שתיה.
Amir: The next word is הערב. This is actually two words ה- which means “the” and ערב which means “evening”.
Shira: Together these mean “this evening”.
Amir: The ה- in front of a word to mean “this” can be used with other words too, like היום, which means “today” or “this day”.
Shira: Or השנה meaning “this year”.
Amir: Or this week, השבוע. The last word is קצת which means “a little”.
Shira: This word is difficult for English speakers because of the shva vowel between the first two letters. It takes some practice.
Amir: קצת, קצת, קצת
Shira: Speaking of, when you double קצת it means “bit by bit”.
Amir: Right, קצת קצת.
Shira: Okay, let’s move on to the Grammar section.

Lesson focus

Shira: In this lesson you will learn how to talk about actions in the future in Hebrew.
Amir: I guess that means that we are venturing into the future tense now.
Shira: Well, now that we have learned a little about conjugating verbs in the present tense, we will learn a little tiny bit about the future.
Amir: We need to start out with the root again. You will find that the root is the most important part of Hebrew grammar. If you know the root, you can say many things correctly.
Shira: The main verb we are going to look at this time is לשתות.
Amir: In the dialogue, Peter said, דוויד, מה תשתה הערב?
Shira: So, he is using the verb לשתות in the future by asking what David will drink that evening.
Amir: So, let’s explain how he got to this word from לשתות.
Shira: The root of לשתות is שתה, or shin - tav - heh. For the verb stem in the future you only need this root.
Amir: The future tense adds prefixes to this verb stem and in some cases a suffix as well. Peter was talking to David, so he needed the conjugation for you, masculine singular. The prefix for this is ת- or tav.
Shira: So, with the addition of this prefix, the word becomes תשתה.
Amir: In the future tense, you really don’t need a subject because the subject is understood from the verb conjugation. That’s why Peter doesn’t say אתה תשתה.
Shira: David answers Peter by saying אשתה בירה or “I will drink beer”.
Amir: Here again, you have the verb stem with the addition of the prefix א' or aleph to conjugate for “I” and it becomes אשתה.
Shira: The third time this verb appears is when Peter asks Sarah if she will also drink beer. He says, את גם תשתי בירה?
Amir: Here is where you see the irregular aspect of this verb. In the you feminine conjugation you have both a prefix ת' and a suffix י'. In this conjugation, the ה' drops off the root because it would be complicated to have these two vowel like consonants pronounced together.
Shira: So, there is a good reason for it. The verb with the prefix and the suffix becomes תשתי “you will drink”.
Amir: This is a lot to digest I think. It helps if you write it out and see the changes in front of you.
Shira: There is one more example of a verb in the future tense in this dialogue. Fortunately for us, it is with the verb לקנות which is very similar to the verb לשתות.
Amir: Peter says, אז אקנה בירה. The root of לקנות is קנה and like לשתות this is also the verb stem in the future.
Shira: When Peter says, “I will buy” he says אקנה adding the א' prefix onto the verb stem.
Amir: The other conjugations would be the same as לשתות.
Shira: I would definitely encourage you to write the verb conjugations down that we have learned in this lesson so you can start to see the patterns. It will help you as you learn more of the future conjugations and as you learn the other verb groups.
Amir: Hebrew is a very structured and patterned language and being able to visualize and put those roots into the verb patterns will help you a lot.
Shira: We have also included all of the future prefixes and suffixes in the notes for this lesson, so if you want to go further with the future tense, be sure to check it out.

Outro

Shira: Okay, that’s it for this lesson.
Amir: After listening to this lesson, please visit HebrewPod101.com and say hello to us in Hebrew!
Shira: Attention perfectionist! You're about to learn how to perfect your pronunciation.
Amir: Lesson review audio tracks.
Shira: Increase fluency and vocabulary fast with the short effective audio tracks.
Amir: Super simple to use, listen to the Hebrew word or phrase.
Shira: And then repeat it out loud in a loud and clear voice.
Amir: You'll speak with confidence knowing that you're speaking Hebrew just like the locals.
Shira: Go to HebrewPod101.com and download the review audio tracks right on the lesson page today. It's a great way to practice. See you next time!
Amir: Shalom!

25 Comments

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HebrewPod101.com Verified
Thursday at 06:30 PM
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Hi everyone!

Where would you like to go when you visit Israel?

HebrewPod101.com Verified
Monday at 08:54 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi Aaron,


Thanks for posting this question!


In order to find the root of a word, one must first recognized the structure (or "binyan") of the verb in question. There are 7 main verb structures, and they all have 3 tenses and conjugations according to the gender and number of the subject.

The easiest way to find out what the root is is by using the binyan "kal" (simple), masculine-past-singular, where the verb containes only the 3 letters of the root (for example "הָלַךְ, אָכַל, אָמַר, נָסַע" etc.)


I hope that helps, and don't worry if it's not all too clear at once - the root system is complicated and is one of the most complicated topics in Hebrew grammar, it may take a while to develop the necessary intuition and feeling for it 👍


Sincerely,

Roi

Team HebrewPod101.com

Aaron
Wednesday at 04:25 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hello,


I am confused as to how to find the root word  for other verbs. Is there a pattern that we can learn, or is it simple memorizing the different roots for each verb?


Thanks for your help

HebrewPod101.com
Thursday at 12:05 AM
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Hi Louis Boer,


Thanks for replying, I'm happy I could assist :)


Haha that's great! 😄 well phrased 😉 I hope you'll manage to speak a lot in Hebrew during your stay in Israel, there is no better way to learn a language than to use it for real communication after all 👍


Yours,

Roi

Team HebrewPod101.com

Louis Boer
Saturday at 11:19 PM
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All clear, thanks Roi!

At arrival TLV, I hope to be able to reply the פקיד in Hebrew. I will NOT use the female forms of the verb, even if I will meet פקידות.

HebrewPod101.com
Friday at 10:40 PM
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Hi Louis Boer,


Thanks for commenting, I will try to clarify.


Sorry if I wasn't clear - the plural-feminine-future form is identical for the 2nd and the 3rd person.


Modern Hebrew does make this distinction, and this form exists for most verbs, however, it is unfortunately quite rare to hear people use these structures and even in media as newspapers and literature they are often missed. Instead, the masculine forms (that are different for 2nd and 3rd person!) are used for the feminine as well.


I would encourage you to get familiar with these structures, but also to keep in mind that using them while speaking with natives might come across as a little peculiar from a language learner... 😁


I hope this is clearer now. Happy to help!


Yours,

Roi

Team HebrewPod101.com



Louis Boer
Friday at 12:04 AM
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Dear Roi,


Thank you for responding. I was curious about the future plural, where 2nd and 2rd person are different for male and female. You answered for the 3rd person only. So the question left is "does modern Hebrew makes a distinction between 2nd person male and 2nd person female?


Another question. You said that 3rd person does indeed have a female form (your example תהיינה). My question: Is this form used in modern (informal) Hebrew? Perhaps only used for some verbs (like להיות)?


Help will be appreciated.

HebrewPod101.com
Tuesday at 08:13 PM
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Hi Louis Boer,


Thanks for commenting.


I'm not sure I agree with the "no road" theory, as someone that has a good understanding of Hebrew grammar would actually be able to extract the root in such cases - but for a Hebrew learner, it will certainly not be so simple.


Modern Hebrew tends to use the masculine form for the plural feminine (3rd person), but this form actually exists. For example - The verb "be" (they, feminine, future) = תהיינה (tihiyena) - with the suffix "נה".


Happy to help 😄

Yours,

Roi

Team HebrewPod101.com


Louis Boer
Wednesday at 11:46 PM
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The future tense for singular "you" is either male or female. The future tense for "he" and "she" is also either male or female.


It seems that the future tense for the plural "you" (אתם and אתן ) and "they" (הם and הן ) has just one form, without distiction between male and female subjects?


Louis Boer
Wednesday at 11:32 PM
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I learned the infinitives first (like לשתות)--see Yaara's lesson "25 verbs". Only later (in this lesson) we turn to roots. As far as I understand, there is NO ROAD from infinitive to root; you cannot derive the root שתה from the infinitive לשתות. But THERE IS A ROAD from root to infinitive; you can derive the infinitive ללשתות from the root שתה. (Please, correct me if I am wrong.) Perhaps this is/was also Chris Suitts problem. If so, the problem has nothing to do with בניינים.

HebrewPod101.com Verified
Saturday at 05:21 AM
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Hi Timothy stevenson,


Thanks for commenting.


I looked at the lesson's transcript and it does seem to match the audio. The grammar has additional information that shows the different inflations of the verb "to drink" (לשתות).


I hope it helps, please let me know if there's something wrong with it that I might have missed.


Yours,

Roi

Team HebrewPod101.com