Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Shira: Hello and welcome to HebrewPod101.com Absolute Beginner Season 1, Lesson 15 - Describing Things in Hebrew. I’m your host, Shira!
Amir: Shalom, I’m Amir.
Shira: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to describe things in Hebrew.
Amir: The conversation takes place at David and Sarah’s house.
Shira: The conversation is between David, Peter and Sarah.
Amir: It is informal.
Shira: Let’s listen to the conversation.

Lesson conversation

(Informal)
Peter: בוקר טוב! ממש חם היום! הקיץ בישראל חם מאוד, נכון?
David: גם הקיץ בקליפורניה חם.
Peter: נכון
Sarah: הקיץ בישראל חם ולח.
Peter: ולח?
English Host: Let’s listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Peter: בוקר טוב! ממש חם היום! הקיץ בישראל חם מאוד, נכון?
Shira: Good morning! It's really hot today. Summer in Israel is very hot, right?
David: גם הקיץ בקליפורניה חם.
Shira: Summer in California is also hot.
Peter: נכון
Shira: Right.
Sarah: הקיץ בישראל חם ולח.
Shira: Summer in Israel is hot and humid.
Peter: ולח?
Shira: And humid?
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Amir: Summer is not the only time when it’s hot in Israel.
Shira: It’s definitely not. In the spring, we have something special called a Sharav.
Amir: Something special? Ha! I guess you could call it that. It’s a really hot wind that blows up from the Arabian Desert.
Shira: It makes the weather extremely hot and dry compared to the normal spring weather.
Amir: Often it brings lots of dust with it too.
Shira: It can be very dangerous actually when there is a dust storm with the sharav. Most Israelis will close all their windows and doors and hang out inside until it passes.
Amir: Fortunately, they only last a few days and then it’s cooler and sometimes it will even rain afterward.
Shira: It’s only really in the spring that they happen, so you just have to be ready to spend some time inside when they do come.
Amir: The weather is so nice in Israel most of the time, that we spend most days outside anyway, so being inside once in a while because of a Sharav is not too bad.
Shira: The temperatures are in the 90s and 100s during a Sharav, so it’s not so nice to be outside.
Amir: Most houses have air-conditioning in at least one room, so just park yourself next the air-conditioning with a good book and you will be all set.
Shira: Still it’s no fun, but we manage to get through it. Now let’s go to the vocabulary for this lesson.
VOCAB LIST
Amir: בוקר [natural native speed]
Shira: Morning.
Amir: בוקר [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: בוקר [natural native speed]
Shira: Next.
Amir: בוקר טוב [natural native speed]
Shira: Good morning.
Amir: בוקר טוב [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: בוקר טוב [natural native speed]
Shira: Next.
Amir: ממש [natural native speed]
Shira: Really.
Amir: ממש [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: ממש [natural native speed]
Shira: Next.
Amir: חם [natural native speed]
Shira: Hot.
Amir: חם [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: חם [natural native speed]
Shira: Next.
Amir: קיץ [natural native speed]
Shira: Summer.
Amir: קיץ [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: קיץ [natural native speed]
Shira: And last?
Amir: לח [natural native speed]
Shira: Humid, damp.
Amir: לח [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Amir: לח [natural native speed]
KEY VOCABULARY AND PHRASES
Shira: Let's take a closer look at the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word is בוקר.
Amir: Boker is “morning”.
Shira: It’s spelled the same as another בוקר which means “cowboy”, the only difference is that the stress is on different syllables.
Amir: That leads us to our next phrase, בוקר טוב which means “Good morning”.
Shira: When someone says this to you, you can respond with בוקר טוב.
Amir: But the traditional response is בוקר אור or “morning light”.
Shira: People will really be impressed with your Hebrew if you answer with בוקר אור.
Amir: The next word we want to discuss is חם.
Shira: חם means “hot”. It is used only for temperature though, it can’t be used for spicy like in English.
Amir: Something else important to know about this word is that you can’t use it like in English when you want to say you are hot.
Shira: Right, that’s a mistake that a lot of English speakers make in the beginning, they say אני חם. Instead you must say חם לי or “It’s hot to me”.
Amir: This goes for other adjectives as well, not just hot. The last word is לח.
Shira: לח is “humid” or “damp”.
Amir: These last two words are adjectives and they have four different forms like all other adjectives.
Shira: And that leads us to to the Grammar section.

Lesson focus

Shira: In this lesson you will learn how to describe something in Hebrew.
Amir: Which is where the adjectives come in. In order to describe something, you need to know some adjectives.
Shira: Our example sentence for this is הקיץ בישראל חם ולח.
Amir: We have two adjectives in that sentence, חם and לח.
Shira: These adjectives need to agree with the subject of the sentence. Here it is “summer” or קיץ which is masculine singular.
Amir: Since the subject is masculine singular, the adjectives must be in their most basic form.
Shira: To agree with other types of nouns, you add on to this basic form according to the gender and number of the noun. Here are examples of how these two adjectives change according to the noun they agree with. First, is the masculine singular, like in the dialogue.
Amir: תנור חם
Shira: “A hot oven.” Next is feminine singular.
Amir: לחמניה חמה
Shira: “A hot bun.” Now for the plural versions of these two.
Amir: תנורים חמים
Shira: “Hot ovens”
Amir: לחמניות חמות
Shira: “Hot buns.” And now some examples with the adjective לח. First is the most basic version, the masculine singular. By the way, this is also the version that will appear in the dictionary.
Amir: מגבון לח
Shira: “A damp wet wipe.” Next is feminine singular.
Amir: מגבת לחה
Shira: “A damp towel.“ And now the plural versions of these two.
Amir: מגבונים לחים and מגבות לחות
Shira: If you noticed, these endings are similar to the endings for the nouns. For the feminine singular, we have ה' an “ah” or sometimes –ת or “et”.
Amir: For the masculine plural we have ים just like with masculine plural nouns.
Shira: And for the feminine plural, we have –ות.
Amir: This agreement must occur both when the adjective appears directly after the noun and when the adjective is just somewhere in the sentence.
Shira: We have examples for that as well. The first is when the adjective comes directly after the noun.
Amir: היא סטודנטית מצוינת.
Shira: She’s an excellent student. Here we have the other ending for feminine singular adjectives “et”. And now when the adjective describes the noun in the sentence.
Amir: הסטודנטית היא מצוינת.
Shira: The student is excellent. It’s important that you remember that the adjective must agree on both cases, even when it’s not directly after the noun.
Amir: You’ll get the hang of it though, it will start to sound funny to you if you don’t make the nouns and adjectives agree.

Outro

Shira: Okay, that’s it for this lesson.
Amir: After listening to this lesson, please visit us on HebrewPod101.com and describe yourselves to us in Hebrew.
Shira: Listeners, do you know the reason flashcards are so popular?
Amir: It's because they work.
Shira: We've taken this time-tested studying tool and modernized with flashcards.
Amir: Learn vocabulary using your eyes and ears.
Shira: It's simple and powerful. Save difficult and interesting words to your personal vocabulary list called My Word Bank.
Amir: Master words in your My Word Bank by practicing with flash cards.
Shira: Words in My Word Bank come with audio so you learn proper pronunciation.
Amir: While you're learning to recognize words by site.
Shira: Go to HebrewPod101.com now and try My Word Bank and flash cards today. See you next time!
Amir: Shalom!

26 Comments

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HebrewPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
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Hi everyone!

Describe today's weather.

HebrewPod101.com Verified
Thursday at 06:29 PM
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Hi Allister Dann,


Thanks for posting your question! I'll try to explain:


Nouns and adjectives are in agreement with each other only in the sense that the number (plural/singular) and genus (feminine / masculine) must match.

The ending "et" or "ah" are both common endings for feminine words in Hebrew. The type ending itself is determined according to every word's structure and its root letters. This will be taught in more depth at a later point.


I hope that helps for now :)


Enjoy learning Hebrew!


Roi

Team HebrewPod101.com

Allister Dann
Thursday at 07:00 PM
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Hi,


Regarding the agreement of nouns and adjectives, I am confused about the two feminine singular examples you give.


מגבת לחה

In this example, the noun ends in a "et" (tav) but the adjective ends in a "ha". So although "ha" is a feminine singular adjective ending, it doesn't in this case match the noun.


הסטודנטית היא מצוינת

Whereas in this example, both noun and adjective end the same - in "et".


So for feminine singular nouns ending in "et", how do you know if the adjectives should end in "et" or "ha"? Are there rules, or is it simply something you need to learn case-by-case?

HebrewPod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 09:49 PM
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Hi Eloïse Plantagenet,


Thanks for posting! Good work 👍👍


Only one note - if you wanted to write "in California", the correct preposition is "be" - as in "היום קצת קר בקליפורניה" (= "hayom k'tsat kar be-Californiah").


Keep up the good work, and stay warm 😉


Yours,

Roi

Team HebrewPod101.com

Eloïse Plantagenet
Wednesday at 03:27 AM
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Shalom. Ha'yom k'stat kar le'Californie.

HebrewPod101.com
Tuesday at 07:57 PM
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Hi Trevan,


Thanks for commenting and sharing this difficulty.


In this lesson, for example, we hear the conversation and then - starting 1:53 you can listen to the conversation with a translation of every phrase separately. Translating after every word is in many cases not possible and isn't recommended for learning a language...

I advise you to use the text in order to guide your listening if you find it too difficult or play the lesson at a slower speed.


I hope that helps!

Yours,

Roi

Team HebrewPod101.com

Trevan
Wednesday at 02:08 AM
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I love the lessons except for one repeated problem. At the beginning of the lesson when we listen to the conversation, the translation session is often frustrating because they don't translate a few words at a time. They often translate after six or seven words; therefore, the translation is useless to me.

HebrewPod101.com
Sunday at 06:08 PM
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Hi Carol,


Thanks for commenting! This is a very good question.


Unfortunately - it doesn't have a very good answer. 😅 Hebrew is less strict about the subject of word order in a sentence than other languages, and in many cases, both ways would be possible. Often the positioning of a word relates to the part of the sentence that we want to emphasize.


That said, in general, and in literature, "מאוד" would follow the adjective or a verb, but in daily speech, it is common to hear the other version as well.


I hope that helps 😄


Yours,

Roi

Team HebrewPod101.com

Carol
Sunday at 12:14 PM
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Hi I am confused on the placement of מאוד. Does it go before or after the word it is describing


Thanks,

Carol


Hans Georg
Thursday at 04:30 PM
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Hi 101 team,


Thank you for this lesson. I really enjoy learning using your method and materials. maybe you can answer me short question: Is there a reason for not showing the Hebrew vowel symbols in the vocabulary list at the end of a lesson? I'm used to write down the new vocabulary down in a textbook, for writing practice. Best Greetings.

Shelley Lynn
Thursday at 07:40 PM
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So interesting. Thanks again, Yaara.